YOUNG PEOPLE
WE CARE!

A Book of Ideas to help Young People Supporting each other in their Communities

Copyright text and illustrations JSI UK 2003.
Information and illustrations contained within this publication may be freely reproduced, published or otherwise used for non-profit purposes without permission from JSI UK. JSI UK requests, however, that it be cited as the source of the information.

Download Young People We Care! (pdf)

Written by Judith Sherman, JSI UK, Zimbabwe
Edited by Nicky Davies, Consultant
Copy edited by Virginia Curtin Knight
Illustrations by Joel Chikware
Designed and produced by Fontline Electronic Publishing (Pvt) Ltd., Harare, Zimbabwe
Published September 2003

ISBN: 0-7974-2692-2

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Dear Facilitator and Young People:

As you know, young people all over Zimbabwe are concerned about HIV and AIDS. Many organisations have formed youth groups or clubs to help young people stay HIV negative. Young people are involved in peer education, life skills, drama and other HIV-prevention activities. At the same time, children and young people are caring for parents or siblings who are ill or have already lost family members to AIDS. They need support from all members of the community. Young people, however, are also important members of communities and can play a significant role in providing community service.

This book is designed to encourage and help groups of young people support either younger children or their peers who are living in communities and households affected by AIDS. It can also be used by home-based care organisations that want to involve young people in their home-based care activities. Young People We Care! is designed for use by any group of young people aged 15-20 years. Nevertheless, we feel that groups who have already received training in the following will use it most effectively.

There are two sections to this book:

The Training Guide is written for a facilitator or young person with a good knowledge of HIV and AIDS and facilitation experience. It aims to prepare a group of young people to implement the Community Activities in the second section. The training guide includes participatory activities to help young people think through a number of topics. (For each topic there are suggested community activities listed in the second half of the book.) You may have covered some of these topics already in your ongoing programme—others may be new. In either case, it is important the young people feel comfortable with the issues raised.

The Community Activities section is written for young people and suggests ways to help support other young people and children in the community. Most of the activities require no resources—no money or supplies—just the commitment of young people who want to help others in their community.

Young People We Care! aims to:

Before you start:

Salvation Army Example:

In Bulawayo, a young person accompanies a HBC volunteer to households. While the HBC volunteer takes care of the patient, the young person plays with the children.


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Table of Contents

 
Training Guide
Introduction
  1. Knowing Your Facts about HIV and AIDS
  2. Being a Young Caregiver
  3. Ending the Stigma
  4. Helping Families
  5. Being a Friend
  6. Making Memory Boxes
  7. Overcoming and Avoiding Abuse
  8. Making Good Choices about Sex
  9. Helping Children Grieve
  10. Getting Help from the Community

    1. Warm-Ups and Energizers
 
Community Activities
Introduction
  1. Knowing Your Facts about HIV and AIDS
  2. Being a Young Caregiver
  3. Ending the Stigma
  4. Helping Families
  5. Being a Friend
  6. Making Memory Boxes
  7. Overcoming and Avoiding Abuse
  8. Making Good Choices about Sex
  9. Helping Children Grieve
  10. Getting Help from the Community

    1. Nature Art for Children
    2. Games to Play with Children
    3. Assessing Your Programme
    4. Book Evaluation
    5. Guide to Other Resources

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Training Guide—Introduction

The Training Guide is written for individuals who have experience in training young people and are knowledgeable and comfortable talking about HIV, AIDS and sex. You might be a young person yourself, a youth club leader, a teacher running an after-school club or peer educator etc. Before you start, you should be confident that you can improve the attitude, behaviour and knowledge of young people and give accurate information and messages about HIV and AIDS. If you are not sure, involve those who are confident, or wait until you have received appropriate training.

The Training Topics in this section prepare young people to carry out the matching Community Activities suggested in the second section. This first section, therefore, allows for group discussion and sharing of information and ideas so that young people can be more confident. Most ideas will come from the young people themselves; your role is to make sure they have accurate facts, appropriate attitudes and are aware of what is and is not helpful for them to do. You can help them understand how this book will help them—and introduce them to the Community Activities section.

As a facilitator, you should already have a comfortable space where young people can meet. The young people should already have agreed on certain ground rules, for example on confidentiality, letting others speak and not being judgmental. You don't need any special materials for the activities in this section, although it would be helpful to have flipchart paper and markers or a blackboard and chalk to write down ideas. We have not given timings for each of the activities—you may want to spend more time on one exercise than another—or skip some exercises altogether. We do suggest you start each activity with a warm-up/game to energize the participants and strengthen their team spirit. There is a list of sample warm-ups and energizers at the back of this section.

Be prepared for some exercises to trigger strong emotions. For some young people the issues covered by this book may be very real. Care should be taken to support young people through their own feelings. Make sure the group knows the topic to be addressed before it starts, and allow individuals to not attend, or leave, some sessions if they are not comfortable. Encourage them to come back afterwards though!

Good luck—and remember—ask for help if you are not sure. You are not expected to know everything or be able to do everything yourself.


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Training Topic 1: Knowing Your Facts about HIV and AIDS

Note to Facilitators:

Most people in Zimbabwe know how HIV is transmitted; but still, people are afraid they might "catch" HIV from being near a person with AIDS, buying food from them, sharing a plate and so on. It is important the young people understand that HIV is a virus and that AIDS is a collection of illnesses or symptoms that show someone with HIV is getting very sick. Young people must understand that they cannot, therefore, be infected with AIDS, only with HIV. It is also important for young people to understand the ways in which HIV is and is not transmitted. The following exercise might help address some of these fears.

Exercise:

  1. Divide the group into small discussion groups and give them the following questions to consider:

    • What is the difference between HIV and AIDS?
    • Think about those in the community who are living with AIDS (DO NOT SAY THEIR NAMES). Who takes care of them when they are sick?
    • Can you get HIV from caring for, or helping, someone with HIV, or living with someone who has AIDS
  2. Bring the small groups back together, discuss their responses and correct any misunderstandings.
  3. Use the mini-quiz on the next page to check understanding and levels of confidence.

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Mini-quiz

Questions:
  1. My partner looks healthy. Can he be HIV positive?
  2. A woman in our neighbourhood whose husband died from AIDS sells bananas, tomatoes and sweets. Can we get HIV from her food?
  3. I heard that HIV is only for older people who have had lots of sexual partners. Can young people get HIV too?
  4. My partner and I are faithful with each other so can I get HIV?
  5. My brother says that condoms don't work—they have leaks or they're already infected with HIV. Is that true?


Answers:
  1. My partner looks healthy. Can he be HIV positive?
    You can't tell if a person has HIV by looking at him or her. You can only know for sure from an HIV blood test.
  2. A woman in our neighbourhood whose husband died from AIDS sells bananas, tomatoes and sweets. Can we get HIV from her food?
    You can't get HIV from food prepared by or sold by someone who is HIV positive or who has AIDS.
  3. I heard that HIV is only for older people who have had lots of sexual partners. Can young people get HIV too?
    People who have unprotected sex can get HIV regardless of how old or young they are if the person they have sex with is HIV positive.
  4. My partner and I are faithful with each other so can I get HIV?
    If you or your partner were sexually active before, it might have been with someone who was HIV positive. Only an HIV test will tell you if you are both HIV negative.
  5. My brother says that condoms don't work—they have leaks or they're already infected with HIV. Is that true?
    Used correctly during sex, condoms can prevent HIV from passing from one person to another. In Zimbabwe, the condoms that are sold or distributed for free are tested and approved by the government to make sure they are 100% safe if used properly.

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Training Topic 2: Being a Young Caregiver

Note to Facilitators:

Children who have been affected by HIV and AIDS may feel a lot of mistrust. They may have been hurt, rejected or harassed and could be suspicious of this programme. The young caregiver needs to behave carefully and be able to deal with children's questions to gain their trust.

Exercise 1:

  1. Emphasise confidentiality before and after the exercise. This will help build trust and openness within the group.
  2. Divide into small groups. Ask each person to do the following:

    • Think about and then share one happy experience you've had—either when you were small or, more recently, when you were able to deal with a difficult situation and got help from someone.
    • Think about and then share a difficult situation you experienced—either when you were small or, more recently, when no one helped you.
  3. Bring the small groups back together. Discuss what it was like for them to share their experiences.

    • What did the people who helped them have in common?
    • What would you need to change to be like them?
    • When helping children and young people affected by HIV and AIDS, what kinds of things do you think it would be better for an adult to do, because they have skills you do not have?

Exercise 2:

  1. Explain to the group that for many caregivers, struggling with our own feelings and issues, helping others can be hard.
  2. Show the following list of questions to the group. Allow time for each individual to answer the questions for him or herself:

    • Who am I?
    • Do I like myself?
    • Why do I want to be involved in community work/ peer counselling?
    • What is it that I can give to my peers and community?
    • What do I expect to get back?
    • What are the issues in my life that could stop me from being effective in my work?
    • What can I do about these issues?
  3. Ask group members to share some ideas on how to address issues that might affect their role as caregivers.
  4. Explain that they can draw support from other caregivers and that they should try to address their own issues and concerns as well as care for others.

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Training Topic 3: Ending the Stigma

Note to Facilitators:

Unfortunately, discrimination and stigma are real problems for people affected by HIV and AIDS. Rejection and stigma can be expressed in many different ways—all of which can be very painful. When a community allows an atmosphere of rejection and stigma to exist, then it is difficult to discuss HIV and AIDS and offer care and support to those who are affected. At the same time, people living with HIV and their families may not want to be open about their needs, because they are afraid of the stigma and discrimination.

Exercise:

  1. Ask the group to give some definitions for stigma and discrimination.
  2. Ask the group the following questions:

    • What are some of the most common forms of stigma and discrimination suffered by people affected by HIV and AIDS?
    • What causes some people to reject those affected by HIV and AIDS?
  3. Ask the group:

    • What can we do—each one of us—to overcome the stigma and discrimination of people affected by HIV and AIDS?
  4. List the ideas where everyone can see them.

Summarising:

Discuss some of the main causes for discrimination, such as ignorance and fear, i.e. that people are afraid of HIV and AIDS and don't know how it can or cannot be spread.

There are some examples of what young people can do listed below and in the community activities section. Add these to the list if the group did not suggest them and don't be afraid to add your own ideas!

We can:

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Training Topic 4: Helping Families

Note to Facilitators:

Home-based care workers are trained to provide many different kinds of support to people living with AIDS, for example, patient care, counselling and treatment. The young caregivers can help home-based care workers by doing other things for the family. The exercise below will encourage young people to come up with their own ideas for helping families.

Exercise:

  1. Break the group into small groups. Give each group one of the following two questions to discuss:

    • If you had no money, what could you do to help a friend or relative living with AIDS?
    • Usually we talk about helping people living with AIDS, but what about the reverse? What can a person living with HIV and AIDS do to help make things easier for his/her family?
  2. Bring the groups back together and list their responses. Ask members from both groups to contribute additional ideas.
  3. Ask the group as a whole to list the kinds of support they could provide to families affected by HIV and AIDS.

Summarising:

Medicine isn't everything. People living with AIDS need rest, to avoid stress, maintain good hygiene, eat healthy food and, most of all, continue to be respected, loved, cared for and given hope.

People living with HIV and AIDS can talk with their family about what is going on. They can make plans for their future and that of their children, including making a will and deciding who will care for the children.

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Training Topic 5: Being a Friend

Note to Facilitators:

Children and young people who are helping to care for sick parents, or who are orphaned, may encounter many difficulties. Help the group think about the different types of difficulties there are—such as exploitation, abuse, loneliness, and discrimination. Children and young people who are vulnerable need friends like the rest of us. Help the young people understand that sometimes we need to make more of an effort to provide friendship because children and young people caring for sick parents may have little spare time and may seem "old" and not much fun. Providing support will make their lives much easier and give them some free time to have fun and "be young".

Exercise 1:

  1. Brainstorm the main problems concerning children in the community.
  2. Divide into groups. Each group selects one problem and prepares a role-play on it.
  3. After each role-play, discuss what was helpful in supporting the child and what was not helpful.

Exercise 2:

  1. Divide into two groups. Ask them to role-play on an "ideal" friend and a "bad" friend.
  2. Afterwards, each group can perform its role-play for the whole group.
  3. Next, list some of things that make an ideal friend and list some of things that make a bad friend.

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Training Topic 6: Making Memory Boxes

Note to Facilitators:

A memory box is a box, bag or book in which people keep special things about their family. A memory box can hold photographs, baby clothes, gifts, letters, drawings or anything else that holds special memories about the family.

Making memory boxes was originally an idea to help sick parents record family and cultural history and memories of their children's childhood. Children then have something from their parents that could bring them comfort and a sense of belonging and love. Some people write memories in books, but that's not the only way. People who have trouble writing might feel better with a box or even a bag. Even people who think they have nothing to leave in a box can usually find something for their children to remember them by.

Now children and parents often make memory boxes together. It is important to understand that making a memory box with a sick parent can be very difficult and sad for the child and adult. Sometimes it can feel like saying goodbye. This is not a bad thing. It gives the adult and child a chance to share plans and ideas for the future.

Remember that memory boxes can be made after someone has died. It is possible to collect specific items and information by talking to friends and family.

Exercise:

  1. Ask the group to sit in a circle with a large box (or bag) in the middle. Provide them with a brief description of a memory box. Hand out 5 small pieces of paper to each participant. Ask them to picture themselves in 3 years. What memories or mementoes of their lives and their parent's lives would they like to have? Each participant should write or draw their items on a piece of paper. When they are finished, they should put their pieces of paper into the box.
  2. Give them 3 more pieces of paper and ask them to imagine themselves in 30 years showing the content of the box to their children. What memories or mementoes of their lives and their parent's lives would their children like to have? Add these pieces of paper to the box.
  3. After everyone has finished, ask for volunteers to discuss:

    • What did they choose and why?
    • What emotions and thoughts did they have during the exercise?
    • If they were receiving a memory box from their parents, would they want it before the person left/died or afterwards?
    • How do they think they would feel upon opening a memory box?

Summarising:

Emphasise to the group that for children caring for sick parents, making a memory box may be a sad activity. It may feel like the child is "saying goodbye". Discuss how important it is to let children have these feelings and how they can help them focus on making the most of their time with their parents now.

Memory boxes can be for anyone. All of us have memories and stories that we want to share with our children and grandchildren. Encourage group members to make their own!

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Training Topic 7: Overcoming and Avoiding Abuse

Note to Facilitators:

Abuse is a difficult topic to discuss. There is always a possibility that someone in the group has been abused before, or is currently being abused. Emphasise that if any participant feels uncomfortable doing the exercise below, he or she may leave the room and come back later (although it is unlikely anyone will leave, as that often calls attention to a person.) Remind the group that if anyone would like to talk with you further, on their own, you are there to provide them with support.

Exercise 1:

  1. Begin by defining abuse and explaining that abuse can be emotional, physical or sexual. Ask the group to give you examples of each.
    Give definitions for child sexual abuse and incest.
  2. Give the mini-quiz statements (see the next page) to each individual and ask him or her to think about whether the statement is true or false and why.
  3. Ask volunteers to suggest the answers.
  4. Correct any misunderstanding they might have.

Exercise 2:

  1. Ask the group to describe some situations that might be dangerous and leave children and young people open to potential abuse.
  2. Discuss with the group why they have identified these situations and offer some additional situations you would like them to consider.
  3. Ask the group members how they can avoid the dangerous situations they have discussed.

Summarising:

Discuss how difficult it is for people to talk about physical and sexual violence. Explain that victims of abuse sometimes blame themselves for what happened. Discuss why, instead of blaming themselves and keeping quiet, victims of abuse should tell a person they trust about the abuse.

Remind the group that violence is never justified—and is never the fault of the victim. Talk about where young people in the community can go for help. Also, talk about what young people can do to protect themselves—like being careful where they go and not accepting lifts from strangers. Teach them to shout "NO" or "Help" if someone tries to force them to do something they don't want to. This may not persuade the abuser to stop, but it may attract the attention of someone nearby who can help or the shouts may worry the abuser that someone might come along.

The following quiz and answers are drawn from the SAT publication—Counselling Guidelines on Child Sexual Abuse.

Mini-quiz: True or False?

Statements
  1. The abuser is usually a stranger.
  2. Incest is not common among civilised people. Drunks and deviants do it, but never families like ours.
  3. Sexual abuse never happened and the child is making it up.
  4. Men molest children when their wives are not satisfying them sexually.
  5. Many children do not report sexual abuse because they are enjoying it.
  6. No damage is done by sexual abuse if the child is not physically harmed.
  7. Some children are seductive and cause adults to be sexually aroused.
  8. My child who was sexually abused seems fine and does not need counselling.
  9. All homosexual men molest and sexually abuse young boys.
Statements and answers
  1. The abuser is usually a stranger.
    False: Up to 95% of the time the abuser is known to the victim.
  2. Incest is not common among civilised people. Drunks and deviants do it, but never families like ours.
    False: Incest happens in all types of families, irrespective of class, race, economic status, nationality and religion. The saddest thing about incest is that the child is not safe in the one place he or she should feel safe, and that is the home.
  3. Sexual abuse never happens and the child is making it up.
    False: Society generally does not want to believe that we do this to our children and prefers to believe that children are pretending or making it up. The fact that adults do not believe them is the most difficult problem children face. Children often fantasise about positive events, but they rarely make up stories about severely traumatic events.
  4. Men molest children when their wives are not satisfying them sexually.
    False: Men who have unfulfilling sexual relationships with their wives do not usually turn to children. Those who do, usually suffer from role confusion and a variety of personality disorders.
  5. Many children do not report sexual abuse because they are enjoying it.
    False: Children do not report sexual abuse for a number of reasons that may include fear, shame or anxiety. Very often, the child is sworn to secrecy, threatened, bribed or blamed.
  6. No damage is done by sexual abuse if the child is not physically harmed.
    False: Pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections and genital trauma may be physical results of sexual abuse. An abused child always suffers psychological trauma, however.
  7. Some children are seductive and cause adults to be sexually aroused.
    False: Adults who are sexually aroused by children and who act on this arousal are confused about their own sexuality and are not able to exercise a socially acceptable level of control over their own sexual behaviour.
  8. My child who was sexually abused seems fine and does not need counselling.
    False: All sexually abused children need to be assessed and treated by professionals. If they are not attended to, they may experience problems later on in life.
  9. All homosexual men molest and sexually abuse young boys.
    False: The sexual attraction of men to other men is distinct from the attraction of men to young boys, just as not all heterosexual men are attracted to and abuse young girls.

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Training Topic 8: Making Good Choices about Sex

Note to Facilitators:

For many youth groups and clubs, preventing HIV infection is an important part of group activities. Probably your group has already talked about how to be a responsible young person and ways to support your communities. In their role as young caregivers, group members should continue to help other young people protect themselves from HIV.

Exercise:

The following letters are adapted from "Auntie Stella: Teenagers talk about sex, life and relationships".

  1. Divide into small groups. Give each group one of the following letters on a card. Then ask them to discuss the questions printed below. (Tip: Each of the letters given can be discussed at a separate session.)
  2. Bring the groups back together and read them Auntie Stella's reply. Ask them what they think about her reply. Is it good advice? Why or why not?

I want to be like my friends!

Dear Auntie Stella,

"I am a 17-year-old boy in Form 3 at a boarding school. My problem is this: I know many girls but none of them will make love with me. All my friends boast when they speak about their sexual experience. I am afraid that I am getting so old that when I finally find a girlfriend she'll laugh at my failure to do it well. Please help me!" Titus

Discussion Points:

Auntie Stella's reply:

"Where have you been all this time? It seems the girls you talk about know much more about life and the hazards along the way than you do. You must have heard about HIV, other STDs, and unwanted pregnancy? If a girl will sleep with you easily, what makes you think that she has not slept with other boys as well? That puts you at risk with her. Your friends might boast about their conquests, but they are either lying or also in danger of getting an STD or HIV.

"Be thankful you have nothing to worry about yet. Stay happily single until the right girl comes along. Lack of experience won't bother you then because you'll both be learning together."



Kissing but no sex!

Dear Auntie Stella,

"I am a 16-year-old girl and I am very confused. I have a boyfriend and we both really enjoy kissing and touching each other's bodies. The problem is I don't know where to draw the line. I know that with boys, once you start then you've got to go to the end. But I don't want to have sex and I'm scared of AIDS. So, Auntie, what should I do?" Busi

Discussion Points:

Idea for a role-play: In pairs, act out the scene between Busi and her boyfriend. Take turns being Busi.

Auntie Stella's reply:

"It is natural to enjoy hugging and kissing. It is a part of growing up and is also very safe. You cannot get pregnant or get any STD or HIV from kissing and touching. You are also right that it is better not to have sex until you are older and feel ready. It is not true that 'you've got to go to the end'. The best way to deal with the problem is to share your feelings with your boyfriend and find out how he is feeling as well. Come to an agreement that you will only kiss and hug. If your boyfriend is not happy with the agreement, you may have to break up."

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Training Topic 9: Helping Children Grieve

Note to Facilitators:

The death of one's parents, a sibling or relative can be painful. Young caregivers should be prepared for the grief, and even anger, involved in the bereavement process. Grief is defined as the pain felt after death.

Exercise:

  1. Divide into three groups to discuss the following questions:

    • Group 1:
      What does death mean to you?
      What are the differences if death is caused by AIDS?
    • Group 2:
      What has been your experience as a young person at funerals in Zimbabwe?
      What is helpful and what is not helpful for a child?
    • Group 3:
      How do children express their grief?
      How are they helped by families, friends and the community?
  2. Bring the three groups back together to share their responses.

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Training Topic 10: Getting Help from the Community

Note to Facilitators:

The problems of children and young people affected by HIV and AIDS are too big for young people alone—they are also too big for home-based care workers and other volunteers. Communities are already responding to these problems—some more than others—and young people should be encouraged to be a part of that response.

Exercise 1:

Do some brainstorming. Ask the group to list the following:

  1. Who is the community?
  2. What are the priorities for young people in the community?
  3. What are the ways the community can help young people?
  4. What can we do ourselves?
  5. Make a plan for discussing their priorities with the people they have listed.

Exercise 2:

  1. Read the following question to Auntie Stella and divide into small groups to discuss the discussion points.
  2. Bring the groups back together and read Auntie Stella's reply to them. Ask them what they think about her advice.

Should I have sex to pay for school fees?

Dear Auntie Stella,

"I am a 19-year-old girl, doing my O-levels this year. My father left us when I was still young. My mother died last year and there are five younger brothers and sisters after me. Now I am the oldest person at home and I need to look after them. I want to finish my O-levels so I can get a job, but my problem is that I don't have money to pay for my school fees. Is it right to agree to have sex with older men who can give me money? Because I can't think of any other way to pay for my school fees and buy food and other things needed for my younger brothers and sisters." Yours sincerely, Similo

Discussion Points:

Auntie Stella's reply:

"Think of the consequences of having sex for money—like becoming pregnant, getting HIV or other STDs, being raped or beaten. Is it worth it? The government says that "no child shall go without an education for reasons of poverty", but unfortunately many children and young people cannot afford school fees. List ways in which young people can make money. List people and places in the community who could help."



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Your facilitation notes:






















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Warm-ups and Energizers

(The following were reprinted from Life Skills Manual, U.S. Peace Corps, July 2000)

RHYTHM CLAP (Introducing group members)

Start off a rhythmic clap by clapping your hands, slapping your thighs, snapping your fingers, in time to an introductory statement, such as "My name" —clap, clap— "is Chipo" — snap, snap — "and I like" — slap, slap — "football". Go around the circle in this way until all participants have introduced themselves.

CROSS THE CIRCLE (Trust, Cooperation, Risk)

Ask participants to form a big circle in the middle of the room, facing inward. Each participant identifies someone standing opposite him/her. When you say "Go", each participant must close his/her eyes, walk across the circle and stand in the place of the person opposite him/her. All participants do this at the same time, and they must not look! People get very confused but sort themselves out eventually. Afterwards, ask participants how they felt doing this with their eyes shut. How does the exercise relate to real life experiences?

ONE-LEGGED VOLUNTEER (Team Building)

Ask for one volunteer. That volunteer is the "one-legged volunteer". She or he cannot do all the work alone, so she/he must build a team to help. The volunteer hops on one foot and tries to catch the others. The group is running away from her/him within the boundary that you have set. When the "one-legged volunteer" touches someone, that person must join arms and also hop on one foot to try to catch the others. Continue until all are caught by the team. Once a team gets started, nothing can stop it! SPIDER WEB (Leadership, Commitment, Teamwork) Participants stand close to each other in small circles—about five or six people. The participants take the hands of the people in the circle. They cannot take the hand of the person next to them, and they must be sure to have the hands of two different people. They then try to untangle themselves—to return to a continuous circle again without letting go of anyone's hands. After all groups have successfully untangled, process the exercise. Did any leaders direct the rest of the group? What was the process? Did anyone give up? Why? What made the group finally succeed?

LIFEBOAT (Team Building)

Have all participants move around a specific area. Tell them to imagine they are floating in a large lake. They need to form lifeboats to survive. The facilitator calls out a number — "6!" Participants must form groups of six to keep from drowning in the lake. If the group is formed with less or more than six, the whole group "drowns" and must stand to the side while the game continues. The facilitator calls a different number, and again the participants form groups.

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Community Activities—Introduction

This Community Activities section is written directly for you, the young person. The section aims to give you some ideas about what you could do to help other young people and children in your community. Some things that you can do take little effort and others are more challenging. Decide what level of commitment you want to make and start by doing something and see how you do. Don't try and do too much or over commit yourself—all your efforts will be appreciated.

If you have been through the first section, the Training Guide, you will be aware of the kinds of things that are being suggested as helpful in the community. It will be obvious that although many children and young people do provide direct care for their parents and others in the family with AIDS, this book is not about caring for the sick. Instead, it is more about how you can help the community cope with HIV and AIDS and how you can help other young people and children manage the challenges they are facing.

Adults have some skills that you may not have. For example, there are trained counsellors and doctors who provide services that you cannot provide. These professionals, however, often have great concerns that what they can do is not enough. For example, they can help someone have hope through counselling, but people living with, or affected by, HIV and AIDS also need friends and a positive supportive environment in the community. Relatives can take a child or young person into their home and care for them when their parents die, but they may not necessarily know how to help the child grieve or have time to play with them or help them make a memory box.

So, there are many things that you can do without professional skills and for which you are better placed than others. Remember, however, that you are only one person and there is a limit to what you can do and contribute. All of us—old, middle-aged and young—find it hard to judge when to slow down, refer people elsewhere or say we don't know. It is better to be available with help regularly and consistently than try to do too much and get overwhelmed and give up.

You can do lots of other things that are not described in this section—but hopefully these will be a good start. Good luck—and remember—ask for help if you are not sure! You are not expected to know everything and be able to do everything yourself.

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Community Activity 1: Knowing Your Facts about HIV and AIDS

All of us in Zimbabwe are affected by HIV and AIDS. People we know—people in our families and communities—are affected. We all need to know the facts about HIV and AIDS.

What are HIV and AIDS?

HIV is a virus that is mainly spread through unprotected sex. It is also spread from mother to child during pregnancy, during birth or through breastfeeding. HIV can also be spread through infected blood. For example, sick people sometimes are given extra blood through a blood transfusion. In Zimbabwe, this blood is tested to make sure it is safe. But HIV can also be passed on when you share needles or razor blades with someone who is HIV positive.

You cannot get HIV from:
Kissing, hugging or touching mosquitos
Toilets, baths or showers
Plates, cups, spoons
Hair clippers or scissors

Someone with HIV—who has had an HIV test and received a positive result—is called "HIV positive". People who are HIV positive can live healthy, normal lives for many years. You can't tell from looking at a person whether or not he or she is HIV positive.



What Can We Do?
  • Make sure others know the facts—conduct a survey in the community or at school and present the results at a community or school meeting (see sample card of survey questionnaire). Present the results as a debate, report or role-play.
  • Ask someone from your local AIDS service organisation, health centre or District or Ward AIDS Action Committee to lead a discussion on HIV at school, at church or a community gathering.
  • Make posters with the facts about HIV and AIDS, and hang them at school and in public places—use positive words and pictures.

Don't Shame or Blame—Words and Pictures Count!

Which words and pictures below do you think encourage people to be open about HIV and AIDS? Constantly hearing negative messages about HIV and AIDS can make young people whose parents are sick feel bad and ashamed and make others not want to think about HIV and AIDS at all.

Don't say

AIDS Kills!
We are anti-AIDS!
AIDS sufferers
AIDS victim
Do say

Live Positively!
We can make a difference!
People living with HIV and AIDS
HIV-positive people

You might think that those on the left have a clear message, but they can cause harm by making people with HIV feel helpless and blamed. The words and pictures on the right can help encourage people living with HIV to be involved, stay healthy and keep working (including educating others about HIV and AIDS).

Sample Survey Questions:

  1. What is HIV and what is AIDS?
  2. Can you name some of the ways HIV is passed from one person to another?
  3. Is there a cure for HIV?
  4. Can you get HIV from touching someone?
  5. Where can someone go to be tested for HIV?
  6. How can people who have HIV stay healthy?
  7. Why are people afraid of AIDS?
  8. Can people with HIV get married and have children?
  9. How can our community support children and families affected by AIDS?
Answers to Sample Survey Questions:
  1. HIV is a virus that weakens the body, making it difficult to fight off infections (illnesses). When people cannot fight off the different sicknesses—then they have AIDS and need someone to care for them.
  2. HIV can be passed from one person to another through: unprotected sexual intercourse, mother to child (either before or during birth or through breast milk) and blood.
  3. There is no cure for HIV, but by living healthy lives, people with HIV can live many years. There are people in Zimbabwe who have been living with HIV for over 15 years!
  4. You cannot get HIV just from touching someone or living with someone who has the virus. But if you are taking care of someone with AIDS, it is important to protect your hands in case you have cuts on your hands that come into contact with the blood of the sick person. You can protect your hands with plastic gloves, a piece of plastic (plastic bags work) or shiny paper if you cannot get anything else. Wash your hands often with soapy water. Wash dirty clothes and bedding in soapy water or water with Jik in it (soak for 30 minutes with 1 measure of Jik to 10 measures of water). If you don't have soap or bleach, at least wash the clothes and bedding in very hot water. The hot water will help kill off germs. Drying clothes in the hot sun can also help kill germs.
  5. People can get counselled and tested at New Start Centres. Some city health clinics and district hospitals offer voluntary counselling and testing too.
  6. Re-infection: with small amounts of HIV in the body, people can live healthy lives. When the amount becomes larger, the body cannot fight off infections and people get sick. One way to keep from getting more of the virus is to practice safer sex. For example, a husband and wife who are both HIV positive should still use condoms in order to keep from re-infecting each other.
  7. There are many ways people with HIV can stay healthy, such as: getting rest and exercise, eating nutritious/body building foods, practicing good hygiene, avoiding stress, avoiding alcohol, cigarettes and drugs, practicing safer sex so they don't get re-infected and getting support from their family and friends.
  8. People are afraid of AIDS because they see people with AIDS dying. They don't know how it is passed and they are worried that they will be infected. The best way to deal with these fears is to educate others!
  9. People with HIV can lead normal married lives, but should use condoms to avoid passing HIV to their partner. If their partner is HIV positive too, then they should use condoms to avoid passing more HIV to each other. If they want children, they should go to a preventing mother-to-child-transmission centre or voluntary counselling and testing centre for counselling.
  10. Communities can do many things to support children and people affected by HIV and AIDS—this manual offers some suggestions.

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Community Activity 2: Being a Young Caregiver

Young people who provide support are called "caregivers", not just those who provide direct care and treatment for sick people.

What Can We Do?

Being a caregiver means:

  • Being a consistently good role model by having a positive attitude and by providing practical help.
  • Being supportive and a good listener. Let people know that:
    • they are not the only ones who feel like they do
    • they will feel better with time and support
    • there are people who care about them
    • there are people who can help them
    • they themselves are capable of doing many things
    • they have a right to ask for help
  • Being generous with your time, energy and skills may require you to make difficult choices.
  • Being able to judge what is needed and know when to ask for help.

Choose one of the answers below:

  1. After school, you and some friends want to buy some biscuits. You see a woman selling some but one of your friends says, "I'm not buying from her. I've heard she has HIV. I'm not going to risk getting AIDS." You say:
    1. "Let's go buy from a different woman."
    2. "I didn't want biscuits anyway."
    3. "You can't believe everything you hear and you can't get HIV from food anyway."
  2. You have promised your little brother that you will help him with his homework this afternoon. But some of your friends are playing football instead. You tell your little brother:
    1. "Just do it yourself."
    2. "I'll help you tomorrow."
    3. "Let's do your homework now. Afterwards, if there is time, I'll go play football. Otherwise, I can always play with my friends another time."
  3. You are at a dance. You notice a group of boys in the corner laughing and teasing another boy because he is refusing to take some of the beer they are passing around. You say:
    1. "What's wrong with you? Drink some."
    2. "Can I have some too?
    3. "Leave him alone. He doesn't want any."
  4. Your best friend, Chipo, has been seeing her boyfriend for a long time and they say they are really "in love." Her boyfriend is trying to persuade her to have sex. Chipo has been telling him "no" and now he won't speak to her. You say:
    1. "You're crazy! If you're in love, you should have sex."
    2. "What if he dumps you? You better have sex just in case."
    3. "It must really hurt to have a boyfriend who is not respecting your feelings."
If you chose "c" to the questions above, congratulations! You are compassionate and respectful—important qualities for a good friend and caregiver!
Know When to Ask for Help!

As a young caregiver, you may sometimes face a problem that is too big for you to handle.

If you are helping a young person or child look after a sick family member at home:

  1. Find out what home-based care organisations are working in the area that could provide support.
  2. Talk to the young person or child and the person who is sick about asking home based-care workers to visit. Do not decide without discussing with the sick person.
  3. Ask for help if you are faced with a problem and you are not sure what to do. Some things are too important to guess—others will know what to do.

TRY THIS!

For the next week, practise the following:

Make positive comments about people
Don't Gossip
Offer to help neighbour
Talk about your feelings with an adult you trust

At the end of the week, ask yourself how you felt—did you learn anything new about yourself?

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Community Activity 3: Ending the Stigma

What Can We Do?
  • Start by thinking carefully about how you talk and react when you find out someone is affected or infected by HIV and AIDS. Make sure you are a good role model.
  • Be positive in your attitude and the way you talk to others about HIV.
  • Avoid blaming and shaming words and pictures.

How do you feel when you find out someone is HIV positive?

What are some of the concerns of a child or young person providing care for a sick person in their family?

Stigma: beliefs that are hurtful against people with certain characteristics   Discrimination: Treating someone unfairly because they belong to a certain group

Why do some people stigmatise (stay away from and behave badly towards) young people from families where someone has AIDS?

Sometimes people are ashamed of having family members with HIV. Why?

What Else Can We Do?

You can help break the silence and fear around HIV and AIDS.

  • Spread correct information about HIV and AIDS through community programmes, dramas, role-plays and other activities.
  • Treat people living with HIV and AIDS with respect, play with children affected and infected with HIV and AIDS.
  • Share information at school or local youth clubs about HIV and AIDS.
  • Encourage respected people in the community to talk positively about HIV and AIDS and to be good role models.
  • If you have a good and trusting relationship with any adults living with HIV who are respected in the community—discuss the positive and negative likely outcomes of them being open about their own HIV positive status.

"My friend Nkosi's mother is sick. Someone is spreading rumours that Nkosi has HIV too. What can I do?"

Lead by example. Show others how to be a friend to someone who is affected by HIV and AIDS.

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Community Activity 4: Helping Families

People who are sick need lots of attention. Children who are caring for sick relatives need help and support. What can you do?

If there is a home-based care worker, ask for ideas on how you can help.

What Can We Do?

Things to do with the person who is sick:

  • Spend time with them
  • Ask them about their lives (this can be part of Making Memory Boxes)
  • Remind them to take medicines
  • Help them take a walk outside
  • Talk or read to them
  • Encourage them to help themselves
  • Put them in touch with those who can attend to their needs
  • Pray with them if they would like you to



What Else Can We Do?

What if the mother or father needs to go to hospital?

  • Find out if there is a grown up who can stay with the children while the parents are away or a neighbour who can check on them every day.
  • Visiting the hospital can be scary for a child. You can go with the children to visit their parent in hospital.

Things to do around the home:

  • Clean the room
  • Make the surroundings as bright and cheerful as possible
  • Make the bed
  • Wash clothes
  • Chop firewood
  • Fetch water
  • Sweep the floors
  • Help with gardens or fields
  • Do errands
  • Cook/prepare food
  • Bring food
  • Play with the children while the adults in the household rest or do chores

Remember—be consistent, contribute what you can, but don't take on too much.

"We can help each other make the chores easier and even fun"

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Community Activity 5: Being a Friend

What makes you happy? Who makes you laugh?

For many of us, our happy times are when we are with friends.

Children who are caring for sick parents or whose parents have died may be too busy to play, or their friends may feel uncomfortable around them.



'Friends share good times and bad; are loyal; have fun together'

What Can We Do?

Be a good friend by:

  • Being there for them!
  • Playing sports together
  • Helping with homework
  • Telling stories
  • Helping them make up their own stories or poems
  • Making drawings
  • Walking them to school
  • Talking about feelings
    • Children with sick parents have many feelings—sadness, anger, blame, guilt, worries about the future. Let them know it's OK to be angry or sad.
    • Let them talk about their worries. Make a plan together on what can be done to address their worries.
    • Try not to let them blame themselves or their parents.
  • Playing games
    • Ask grandparents and parents what games they played when they were little
    • Make toys and games for young children whose parents may feel too sick to play with them and whose siblings are too busy
    See "Games to Play with Children" at the back of this resource.

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Community Activity 6: Making Memory Boxes

Everyone likes to share memories of their lives. Sadly, many Zimbabwean children are losing their parents when they are still young, and memories of their parents are all they have. Memory boxes can help children remember the good things about their lives and keep the memories of their parents close by.

A memory box is a box, bag or book in which people keep special things about their family. A memory box can hold photographs, baby clothes, gifts, letters, drawings or anything else that holds special memories about the family.

It is best to make a memory box when the parents are not so sick that it causes them distress, when the parents can think clearly and have energy. Memory boxes, however, are often made when the parents are sick. This can be a very difficult and painful exercise but also can be an important way to say goodbye. It can give the parents and child a chance to share plans and ideas for the future and to share how they feel about each other.

Children can even make a memory box when their parents have already died by collecting specific items and information from friends and family.

Remember—anyone can make a memory box—whether his or her parents are sick or not!

What Can We Do?

Help a young person or child make a memory box with their parents.

Here are some instructions for the young person or child. Help them take each step:

  • First, ask your parents and grandparents for their help in creating a family history. Reassure them that this doesn't mean that you think they're going to die soon. People can work on memory boxes all their lives—recording special events like school graduations, births, and weddings.
  • Second, find a box, bag or other container large enough to hold anything that you may want to put into it.
  • Third, start collecting!

Ask parents, grandparents, and other relatives questions about their lives. Start writing down their stories in a notebook.

  • What life was like when they were young
  • A list of all their relatives and where they live now
  • Their favourite animal, colour, food, holiday or other favourite things

Ask them about your life:

  • your birth
  • your first words
  • your first steps
  • your first day at school
  • things that made you laugh when you were little
  • any other special stories they have about you

You can also add:

  • copies of special passages from the Bible
  • clippings from the newspaper of special events
  • letters and photographs
  • drawings
  • anything that is meaningful to you!

Put the memory box in a safe place. Add to it whenever you want to.

Take it out every now and then and talk about what you've put inside.

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Community Activity 7: Overcoming and Avoiding Abuse

Sadly, many children and young people who have no parents, or whose parents are very sick, do not have grown-ups who can protect them from being abused. Abuse can be physical, emotional or sexual. If you suspect that someone you know is being abused you need to do something.

What Can We Do?

Educate the community:

  • Ask someone from the school, police or health centre to give a talk about abuse
  • Make a poster with the telephone number for Childline and hang it up at your school, health centre or municipal building

Talk to other young people and children:

  • Discuss the names of 5 people that you and they could tell if they experienced abuse. Explain that if the first person is not available, or doesn't believe them, they will still have other people to talk to. For example, the list might include: my grandmother, a neighbour, headmaster, teacher, pastor, social worker, a nurse at the clinic, a police official.

If someone tells you they have been abused, be prepared with "What to do and not to do" (see page 53) and be their friend:

  • show that you care
  • tell them that you believe them
  • tell them they are strong and brave to talk about their problem
  • don't tell them what to do but help them find out about their choices
  • don't stop being their friend even if they don't do what you advise
  • remind them that it's not their fault—they are not to blame

Put the memory box in a safe place. Add to it whenever you want to.

Take it out every now and then and talk about what you've put inside.

Think about the stories below and how you may have reacted to similar cases in the past.

"A teacher is harassing a girl at school. Her mother is sick and she can't always pay school fees. What should I do?"

What the teacher is doing is wrong! Talk to your parents, the headmaster or another teacher. If they won't listen, look at your list—who else can you tell?

"My friend was raped by a man who gave her a lift. What should she do?"

No matter how long ago the rape happened, she should tell a grown up immediately! She should report the case to the police and go to the clinic for an examination.

"A little boy I know is always getting beaten by his uncle. His parents died last year. What can I do?"

Talk to your parents or a respected member of the community, someone from church or a civic group. Tell them about your concerns and see if they can talk to the uncle. If the uncle will not stop beating his nephew, let the little boy know that it is not his fault and try to be his friend.

Where to go for help:

Childline Hotline Telephone: 961
31 Frank Johnson Avenue
Eastlea
252 000
or
734 252

Family Support Trust, Harare Hospital
Telephone: 04 668056/7



The following information is largely drawn from the SAT publication—Counselling Guidelines on Child Sexual Abuse.

Practical steps for when someone tells you they have been abused:

If a child or young person tells you about any kind of abuse, the information needs to be treated with great care, and they need to feel confident that you will not immediately tell other people. Only people who can help need to know—this may be a counsellor, doctor, parent, teacher etc. Talk to the child or young person before you tell anyone else. You must tell someone—even if the person asks you not to—because he or she could get a sexually transmitted disease, be badly hurt and be very unhappy later in life.

What to do and not to do:

Do:
Don't:

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Community Activity 8: Making Good Choices about Sex

People often say, "Wait until you're older". Well, no matter how old you are, sex is much better if it is part of a stable and secure relationship. In a good relationship, people care for and respect each other's feelings. Being "old enough" means being ready to take responsibility for your actions.

What Can We Do?

Talk to other young people and children about sex:

Discuss—Why do young people have sex?

  • For love. Some people have sex because they feel love for the other person. Many people feel that sex is so special that it should be part of marriage.
  • For money, food or other things. Is it worth the risk or is there someone else who can help?
  • For fun. Sex can be fun but the consequences—pregnancy, HIV, and other STDs—are not!
  • To prove you are a "real" man. Real men only have sex when they love and respect their partner and are willing to take responsibility for their choices.
  • To get experience before getting married. Marriage means two people trust and love each other—your partner will appreciate that you waited to have sex with him or her.
  • Pressure from friends. Sex is about two people—not your so-called friends!
  • To "prove" your love. Real love doesn't need proof—or sex.
  • Force. It is wrong for anyone to use violence to have sex. Forced sex is rape. Rape is a crime.



What Else Can We Do?

Talk to other young people and children about sex:

Discuss—Why do young people have sex?

Talk to other young people and children and ask yourselves the question—"Are you ready for sex?"

  • Do you and your partner both want sex?
  • Do you feel safe and good with this person?
  • Have you talked about sex together?
  • Is this a long-term, stable relationship?
  • Do you have protection from HIV and unwanted pregnancy?
  • Have you visited a VCT centre together? Or a family planning clinic?
  • Have you talked with your partner about using condoms?
  • Do you know where to get a condom?
  • Do you know how to use a condom?

If they answered NO to any of these questions, they are not ready for sex!



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Community Activity 9: Helping Children Grieve

Young people who experience the death of a parent have experienced a grief that changes their lives in many ways.

What Can We Do?
  • Remember, death is a big experience. Ask the home-based care worker or a counsellor to talk with the children about their feelings.
  • You can show your sympathy and support and encourage them to talk about their feelings.
  • You can reassure them that they are not to blame for their parent's death.
  • You can bring food to the funeral.
  • You and your classmates can show support by visiting the home after the parent has died.
  • If plans have not been made for the child's future, you can help him or her identify a close relative, a teacher, a counsellor, a pastor or priest or a social worker who they can talk to.
  • You can go with the children to visit the grave.
  • You can look at their memory box together and add new things to it.

You might experience sadness, fear, anger and other feelings too. Talk about your own feelings with your group leader, other members of your group or someone else that you feel close to.



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Community Activity 10: Getting Help from the Community

What does community mean to you?


"our school", "our church", "our neighbours", "our government", "our health centre"

Children and young people need a lot of support. It is hard for them to stand up for their rights. They need your help and the help of your community too. You can encourage the community to make sure that children and young people:

are protected from abuse
receive health services
get a good education



How can other members of the community be encouraged to become more active in helping families affected by HIV and AIDS?

Create community awareness:

  • Put on plays, puppet shows, songs and dances that also include affected children and young people.
  • Read essays, poems and stories about how children affected by AIDS need community support.
  • Arrange an outreach talk from a nurse or counsellor to address myths and misconceptions about HIV and AIDS.

Organise community workshops:

  • Ask the district social worker or headmaster/headmistress to give a presentation on what services are available.
  • Ask the nurse at the clinic to give a talk about free health care services for children.
  • Invite your ward councillor to a discussion on how children and young people who are caring for sick parents or whose parents have died can carry on getting water and electricity.
  • Ask the Ward AIDS Action Committee to give a presentation on how the AIDS levy is being used in your ward.
  • Ask a representative from Legal Resource Foundation to conduct a talk on the legal rights of widows and children.

Make sure your voices are heard:

  • Is there youth representation on the District or Ward AIDS Action Committee? If not, find out what you need to do to have a youth representative appointed. If yes, ask the youth representative to give a talk to your group on how the needs of children and young people affected by AIDS are being addressed.
  • Is there a Child Welfare Committee in your area? Find out who the members are and what they do. Let them know that you want to be involved.



What Else Can We Do?

Focus on schools:

  • Headmasters, headmistresses or teachers at schools can help when children need special care or attention. They usually notice when children's grades drop or they're absent a lot. But they may not know it's because the child is tired from caring for a sick parent or doesn't have the money for school fees to come back to school. Support the child or young person when he or she goes to talk to the teacher or the Head about the family's situation.
  • Find out how children who don't have school fees can still go to school.
  • Have a school meeting to discuss how to provide school uniforms for children with no money.
  • Children at school may be embarrassed that they have no lunch to eat, while other children are eating lunch together. Talk to the Head about having a school garden that produces food for children in difficult circumstances.

Most of all show by example—give some of your time and energy to help others in the community—whether helping with chores for those who are ill or supporting a grieving child.

Your notes—
what you plan to do in the community:





















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CONGRATULATIONS!

You have completed the Community Activities.

You may have done other activities to help children affected by AIDS that your group or you thought up on your own.

What Do We Do Next?
  • Remember the good feelings that you experienced helping others.
  • Continue to be a role model for others.
  • Show by your own behaviour that young people can prevent HIV by acting responsibly and can care for people infected and affected by HIV and AIDS by being compassionate.
  • Stay active in the community to help change the community for the better.

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A. NATURE ART FOR CHILDREN

SHADOW DRAWING

Materials:

Large piece of paper or newspaper

Pencil or pen

Sunlight and shadow

Process:

  1. Find a shadow you like (a tree, an object placed in the sun, even a person!).
  2. Place paper on ground so that the shadow is on paper.
  3. Draw around the outline of the shadow.
  4. Your drawing is complete.

Variation:

Don't have paper? Take a stick and outline the shadow on the ground.

DRAW FROM NATURE

Materials:

Charcoal sticks or pencils

Paper

Process:

  1. Find a place or scene that you think is interesting to draw. It could be a sunny field, a path through the bush or a cluster of huts.
  2. Sit in a comfortable position with your paper in front of you.
  3. Observe what is around you.
  4. Draw what you see.

Variation:

  1. Close your eyes and draw, never lifting your pencil from the paper.
  2. Draw one: wood, rocks or bricks.

NEWSPAPER SCULPTURE

Materials:

Newspaper

Process:

  1. Roll or crush newspaper into any shapes.
  2. Fit shapes together to form an interesting sculpture.

Variation:

Try making a dog, a snake or other creature.

DOLL'S PLAY HOUSE

Materials:

Box Scissors or knife (optional: fabric scraps, glue, and pen)

Process:

  1. Cut away one long side of the box, and one short side next to it. You have an L-shaped wall.
  2. If you have fabric scraps, cover the walls or floor. Or draw pictures on the walls.
  3. Make furniture out of cut-away box scraps.

Variations:

  1. Instead of a house, decorate the box to be a garden, a school, an office, a hospital or whatever you like.
  2. Use anything you can think of to add to the house or scene: beads, bottle caps, matchboxes, shells, grass and more.

BUILDING A NEST

Materials:

Dried grasses, twigs

Scraps of paper

Feathers or down

Mud

Process:

  1. Build a nest much like the birds do.
  2. Form a nest shape using mud to bind, weaving your materials together.
  3. Line the nest with fluff or feathers, just like the birds.
  4. Allow nest to dry.
  5. Make eggs or a bird and add to nest.

NATURE MOBILE

Materials:

Branch or stick

Objects collected from nature: pebbles, pine cones, leaves, wildflowers, twigs, feathers

String or twine or thread

Process:

  1. Tie collected objects to a branch or stick with twine, string or thread.
  2. Tie twine or string onto a branch to hang.

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B. GAMES TO PLAY WITH CHILDREN

Older children can play many different kinds of games with younger children. Below are some ideas:

~~ Give the child different kinds of things to play with and sort: flowers with different colours; big things and small things; dull things and shiny things.

~~ Make up games that include throwing and catching, jumping and skipping, climbing and sliding.

~~ Make simple drums and rattles and teach children to dance and sing and play their instruments in time with songs.

~~ Collect scrap paper, newspapers and other paper for children to paint and draw on. Try rubbing different coloured flowers and grasses on the paper and see what happens.

~~ Draw a simple picture on a piece of cardboard. Cut it into pieces like a puzzle and have the child put it back together.

~~ Find some cardboard or paper and make a book of everyday items (cup, pot, dog, tree, sun). On one side of the page, draw the picture. On the other side, write the word.

Adapted from Children for Health, UNICEF




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C. ASSESSING YOUR PROGRAMME

Why is it important to assess your programme? Everything that we do provides an opportunity to learn lessons. Sharing these lessons amongst ourselves and with others helps us all be more effective in HIV prevention and AIDS care. Following are some suggestions for assessing what you thought of this book and how you used it. You might choose to hold discussion groups or one-on-one informal interviews. Whatever you decide, remember that everyone's contribution is valuable.

For young caregivers:

For children and young people from affected households:

For parents from affected households:

For home-based care workers:

For programme managers:

For everyone:

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D. BOOK EVALUATION

Please write to us and let us know what your experiences with this programme have been! The following is a suggested evaluation form, but we would be interested in hearing any feedback that you might have.

Your Name:_______________________________

Organisation:_____________________________

Address:_________________________________

Position:_________________________________

Training Guide
1. I have used this Training Guide for the following purposes:




 
2. I found the Training Guide to be: (please circle)
3
Very relevant
2
Somewhat relevant
1
Not relevant
 
4. The quality of the content of the Training Guide section is:
3
Very high
2
Average
1
Poor
 
5. The language used is:
3
Hard to understand
2
Just right
1
Too easy
 
6. How could the Training Guide be improved to meet your needs better?






 
7. Please write any additional comments you would like to make about the Training Guide.






 
 
Community Activities
1. We have done the following Community Activities:






 
2. I found the Community Activities to be: (please circle)
3
Very relevant
2
Somewhat relevant
1
Not relevant
 
3. The Community Activities correspond to the needs of the community:
3
Very much
2
Somewhat
1
Not at all
 
4. The quality of the content of the Community Activities section is:
3
Very high
2
Average
1
Poor
 
5. The language used is:
3
Hard to understand
2
Just right
1
Too easy
 
6. How could the Community Activities section be improved to meet your needs better?






 
7. Please write any additional comments you would like to make about the Community Activities section.






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E. GUIDE TO OTHER RESOURCES

Publications
Organisations available for further information
JSI UK wishes to thank all those that contributed to, reviewed and field-tested this publication: